Solid, stubbornly directed upward "sceptres" - mullein spikes, abundantly strewn with "jewels" of large bright flowers, it is simply impossible not to notice.
And the man noticed: first - the elegant appearance of the plant, and then - and the benefits brought to them. And not insignificant, because it supplies bees with good, high-quality pollen. A person returns health and joy of life, cows - milk when it suddenly disappears (hence the traditionally Russian name).
Just as the king, due to his majestic bearing, does not get lost even in the thickest crowd, so the mullein is always a cut above its surroundings. Being ubiquitous in the wild, it just sticks out from the thickest thickets of grass in a meadow, at the edge of a forest, or in a clearing above a river cliff.
Species name: the scepter was given to the plant for a reason. In view of the short pedicels like buds, the flowers seem to be embedded in the body of the stem. And thanks to the blunt-conical shape of the fading ear, the similarity is further enhanced. It is wider at the top, in the zone of continuing flowering, and much narrower at the bottom, where the ovaries have already formed.
Long-pointed bracts either protrude significantly above the level of the buds, or are equal in length to the petals.
The flowers of the mullein are large, with a diameter of 35 to 50 mm, five-petal, growing in groups-bunches, with a shiny metallic sheen. And also with all the properties of flowers of the Norichnikov family: with two front bare stamens, while the back stamens have dense pubescence.
In addition to the elements of the flower (corolla, pistil, and stamens), pubescence with a soft felt of a grayish-yellow or grayish color is characteristic of all green parts of the plant. Especially - leaves, due to the shape and "furry" of which the plant is also popularly called "bear ear" and fur coat.
The mullein is located in the meadow wide and imposing, capturing a circle of considerable area for the spaciousness of its numerous leaves - sessile basal leaves with a maximum length of the plate (10-40 cm), and then - an ever decreasing length and with an ever increasing angle of accretion to the stem, as a result of which a single bush looks like a pyramid.
If there are several stems, a real Taj Mahal appears with a higher (up to 120 cm) solid central stem - "minaret" and slightly spaced, similar "structures" located in a circle. But of a lesser height, with stems lying on the ground, and then rising up in a smooth arc.
Stem leaves are also sessile, oval, with a tendency to sharpen their shape more and more when approaching the apex. The upper leaf blades have a crenate-serrate edge, the lower ones have a coarse-serrate edge.
In addition to the scepter mullein (or ordinary, or densely flowered, or tall), there are other types of it. At least 46 species grow on the territory of Russia, of which the most widespread are:
In the same meadow, you can easily spot 3 or 4 species of mullein at once. And thanks to the unpretentiousness of the growing conditions, all these herbaceous perennials can be successfully planted in the personal plot.
Blooming from July to September olympic mullein differs in the large power of densely branched erect stems with numerous branches, giving the plant the appearance of a candelabra.
Basal rosette - of very high density due to the abundance of leaves gradually thinning higher, where they smoothly pass into the bracts zone - a "wrapper" for bright golden-yellow, medium-sized (no more than 2-3 cm in diameter) flowers.
The variety is distinguished by drought resistance, high (up to -23 ° C) frost resistance, which does not require shelter for the winter.
The mealy mullein species (biennial, blooming in July-August) at a height of 50-150 cm differs from the scepter-like one in its greater airiness and delicacy of the structure, relatively modest dimensions, strong branching of the stem with smaller flowers (also yellow) and due to the pale gray green pubescence strongly resembles wormwood in color.
For black mullein (50-100-120 cm high) with a general similarity in structure, the arrow-shaped appearance of the shoots is characteristic (stems are thin, straight, directed vertically upward) with their color in a blackish-reddish shade (hence the name) with an abundance of yellow flowers with purple-pink pubescence of stamens ... Flowering is almost uniform from top to bottom, but with the traditional for the species "top" of the stem from the zone of compact unopened buds.
Look mullein purple strikingly differs from the previous species in the color of the entire plant in a black-violet range, single flowers collected in a very rare brush on a not too high (no more than 1 m), almost leafless stem.
In culture, it is an annual, appreciated by gardeners for its high decorative effect. Artificially bred varieties of the most varied colors - from pure white to intense pink-purple.
All mullein are inhabitants of steppes (meadows), therefore they prefer unshaded places, while on the site they are good for decorating unsightly areas of a summer cottage.
In order to use this genus of plants with benefit, they do not have to be planted on the site: for beekeepers to collect a high "harvest" of pollen and honey, it is enough to take the apiary to a flowering meadow, cows, cough in sheep) is enough and raw materials collected in nature.
The healing effect of the flower is also wide. For the preparation of teas, broths, tinctures, aerial parts of plants (mostly the tops of stems with flowers) are quickly dried in a warm shade, collected in clear dry weather.
Raw materials containing mucus-forming substances, carbohydrates, essential oils, rich in vitamin C and organic acids, are used for the treatment of both animals and humans.
This is the area:
In veterinary medicine, galenic preparations of mealy, oriental and violet mullein with a cardiotonic effect are used, and in order to obtain the action of a diuretic, cardiotonic and stimulating gastric and intestinal motility, extracts from violet mullein are used.
Despite the low toxicity of drugs from this medicinal raw material, one should not use them thoughtlessly and uncontrollably.
The influence of mullein on human life is great and diverse. This is both helping his own body, and sick livestock, and creating a supply of complete food for bee colonies for the whole long winter.
And it is also an incomparable aesthetic pleasure from contemplating the beauty and variety of shades and forms of this absolutely unpretentious kind of plants. So let them always be with the person.
Mullein is a stately plant from the Norichnikov family. It is home to the Mediterranean, USA and East Asia. The plant is also known by its Latin name - verbascum, but in our country it is not used so often. Attracts the mullein with abundant flowering. The tops of its stems are completely hidden under the bright, fragrant flowers. Not a single passer-by can pass by without admiring the yellow, pink or snow-white inflorescences. Bright flowers attract birds and beneficial insects, so the garden will be filled with chirping and buzzing from early morning. In care, the mullein is completely unpretentious, and its beautiful flowers are not only pleasing to the eye, but also help to improve health.
The beneficial properties of bear ear herb are due to the set of compounds that are present in its flowers. The common mullein contains:
However, the composition of the plant is not limited to this. The royal scepter is a source of minerals: potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, magnesium, zinc and sulfur.
In addition to the fact that the mullein medicinal has a general strengthening effect on the body and increases its resistance to adverse factors, it has very specific medicinal properties. Due to the presence of tannins, the plant has an astringent, soothing and wound healing effect, which is necessary in the treatment of hemorrhoids. Iridoids, which the scepterous mullein contains, determine its antioxidant, hypoglycemic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, immunomodulatory and laxative effects. Due to the presence of coumarin, mullein herb thins the blood and prevents the formation of blood clots. The flavonoid hesperidin, which is so rich in the common mullein, strengthens the walls of blood vessels and reduces their tone, stimulates the blood supply to the heart muscle and reduces the severity of allergic reactions.
Photos, description and application of the mullein plant are of interest due to the chemical composition. The leaves, flowers and seeds contain:
Some of the active ingredients in mullein can be harmful to the body. Therefore, it is necessary to use the plant in small dosages indicated in the recipes.
From time immemorial, the scepter mullein has been used in medical practice. For a long time, folk healers have used this plant with an interesting name for the treatment of various diseases. The scope of use of the mullein is almost limitless, given that doctors resort to the help of not only the scepter-like plant species, but also others: hairy, Dzungarian, cockroach, magnificent.
All varieties of this herb belong to the Norichnik family.
The scepter-like mullein is a wild plant that has other unofficial names (bear's ear, Mary's candle, royal scepter). The grass can be up to two meters high.
Mullein grows mainly in sandy soil. It is most often found on forest slopes that are bathed in sun for most of the day.
If you look closely at the photo of the scepter mullein, it is easy to see that it blooms with yellow one-day flowers.
They are collected in inflorescences and resemble spikelets. During the flowering period, which falls in early June - early September, traditional healers try to collect the maximum number of flowers.
Nevertheless, other parts of the plant (foliage, root, trunk) are considered valuable for medicinal purposes. They are used in traditional medicine.
In official pharmacology, only flower corollas are used for the production of drugs.
It is not difficult to argue for the need to include the scepter mullein in the manufacturing process of medicines. The chemical composition of herbal fibers contains many valuable and useful substances for the human body:
In addition, mullein fibers contain a lot of mucus and mineral salts. This complex of chemicals is involved in most of the natural physical and biological processes of the human body.
It has been proven that mullein has a number of healing properties, affecting various organs and systems. The plant has the following types of therapeutic effects:
Internal use of the scepter mullein in the form of a tincture or decoction can have a strong diuretic effect. This plant is also used for infectious diseases of a fungal nature of origin, since its components adversely affect the microbial microflora. The version of the vasoconstrictor properties of the mullein has not yet found one hundred percent confirmation by researchers.
However, this does not in the least interfere with the use of the plant for the treatment of ulcerative diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Mullein has an enveloping effect on the mucous membrane of the organ and has a wound-healing effect. Of course, it is hardly possible to heal an ulcer with the help of only one herbal composition, but in combination with conservative methods of traditional treatment, it is possible to accelerate the dynamics of recovery.
The medicinal properties and contraindications of the scepter mullein often become a subject for discussion in narrow circles of homeopaths and representatives of official medicine. Some are sure that this herb is absolutely safe and can be used at any age. Others insist on the presence of toxic elements in the stamen and calyx of the plant.
The only thing that no one has any doubts about today is the content of flavonoids in the fibers of the herb. These trace elements are used to treat diseases of the respiratory tract, oral cavity, esophagus, nasal mucosa.
With a dry cough, flavonoids are indispensable - they help to thin out phlegm and promote its early elimination from the body.
In turn, due to the thinning and discharge of sputum, it is possible to remove the swelling of the throat, eliminate painful spasms in the bronchi.
In most cases, mullein is used for colds accompanied by:
Description of the common mullein (Verbascum thapsus L.): belongs to the Scrophulariaceae family.
Biennial plant, densely covered with non-falling, ash-white, less often light yellowish, dense tomentose pubescence and is devoid of glandular hairs. Stems are erect, leafy, winged. Basal leaves petiolate, petioles 3-6 cm long, oblong blade, 15-30 cm long, 5-10 cm wide, obtuse or with a short tip at the apex, crenate or almost entire. Stem leaves on shorter petioles or sessile, descending, upper leaves sessile, short, pointed.
Inflorescence in the form of a dense, apical, spike-shaped brush, almost cylindrical and not branching. Flowers in bunches in the lower part of the brush, 4-7 in a bunch, in the upper part of the brush, 1-4 flowers in a bunch. Bracts from the ovoid base are lanceolate-pointed, usually shorter than the flower bunch when ripe. Pedicels are thick, short, more or less adherent to the common axis of the inflorescence. The calyx is divided almost to the base, its lobes are lanceolate.
Corolla yellow, 12-20 mm in diameter, with more or less pronounced transparent dots.There are five stamens, all fertile. The filaments of the two anterior stamens at the beginning of flowering are almost straight, slightly longer and thicker than the filaments of the remaining stamens, glabrous or with long white hairs. The anthers of the two anterior stamens are shortly descending. The column is filiform. The capsule is elliptical or obovate, barely exceeding the calyx. Blooms in June-July. Bears fruit in August.
These photos illustrate the description of the common mullein plant:
Distribution of common mullein: distributed almost everywhere in the world. Natural habitat - Eurasia. Introduced and naturalized in Australia, New Zealand, North and South America. It grows in open places, mainly on sandy soil, on steep river banks and in the mountains on rocky soil.
Used parts of common mullein: flowers Various parts of the plant contain: aucubin (aucuboside) - 0.13-0.51%, plant, leaf, color, catalpol fruit - leaf, plant, quercetin (quercitin) fruit - color quercitrin - color. beta-si-toosterol (beta-sitosterol) - sem. pectin - crn. rutin - color sacogenin is a fetus.
Cultivation: grown in a dry, sunny place protected from the wind. The soil should be dry to moderately dry, loose and not too nutritious. Propagated by seeds, which are sown to a depth of no more than 1 cm. The distance between plants should be at least 40x40 cm. Under favorable conditions, the mullein often self-seeds.
Application: preparations of mullein flowers have anti-inflammatory, expectorant, diaphoretic, diuretic, emollient and astringent properties.
Infusion of flowers is prescribed internally for acute and chronic laryngitis, gingivitis, stomatitis, periodontal disease.
Infusion of flowers with honey is recommended at night as a sedative for insomnia.
Traditional medicine recommends the use of a tincture of mullein flowers on vodka (1:10) in the form of rubbing with radiculitis, rheumatism, diseases of the joints.
Fresh mullein leaves, boiled in milk, are used externally in the form of applications on burns, felon, hemorrhoids.
It is used in the form of decoctions and infusions to alleviate acute and chronic inflammatory processes of the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, intestines.
A decoction of dried mullein flowers is recommended for compresses on places covered with purulent acne, lichen, eczema.
Taking into account the emollient properties of mullein flowers, you can prepare a cream or oil infusion, which successfully heals cracks on the lips, hands and feet.
The healing properties of the herb mullein are also used for diseases of the upper respiratory tract and lungs, whooping cough, bronchial asthma, pleurisy, bronchitis, hoarseness, runny nose with lacrimation, pulmonary tuberculosis, cough, shortness of breath.
In the form of an infusion, it can serve as a mild laxative.
Recommended for shampooing in case of baldness.
Recipes for the use of common mullein in traditional medicine:
Despite its high beneficial properties, the common mullein also has contraindications for use:
Next, you know what the purple mullein looks like and what is useful.
The mullein plant can be used in folk medicine both externally and internally. Usually, for the preparation of folk remedies for hemorrhoids, flowers (petals) of the herb are taken. Less commonly, leaves, roots and seeds.
Broth of common mullein from bleeding and falling out hemorrhoids:
Helps with bleeding, relieves pain and inflammation from hemorrhoids.
Recipe for suppositories for hemorrhoids:
The tool helps well as a prevention of hemorrhoids.
Tincture for lotions:
Use as a lotion for hemorrhoids. Cannot be used for bleeding.
Apply externally only! Suitable for the treatment of bleeding hemorrhoids.
Before using mullein inflorescences, all stamens and villi must be removed from the flowers - they can cause irritation.
Strain the decoctions thoroughly and remove all parts of the flower. It is important to remember that the seeds of the plant are poisonous and can cause poisoning if ingested.
The use of the scepter mullein for pregnant and lactating women is possible only with the permission of a doctor.
Store herb separately from food.
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