Annual summer grape care is invaluable: the vineyard left "to the mercy of fate" quickly turns into wild thickets, and the quantity and quality of the fruit is sharply deteriorating. What procedures should be carried out in the vineyard during the season?
With the appearance of leaves on young shoots, form a hole around each plant so that the trunk begins to harden
In order for the grapes to begin bearing fruit faster and to please you with good yields in the future, you need to provide the shoots with careful care from the very first year of cultivation. Standard "green operations" will not have to be carried out, but special attention should be paid to loosening, weeding and watering.
First of all, you have to loosen the soil compacted during planting around the planted vine shoots and in the aisles. With the appearance of leaves on young shoots, form a hole around each plant so that the trunk begins to harden. Of the three or four branches that have grown in June, one, the most powerful, is left, so that the plant directs all its forces to its growth, then by autumn you will get a well-developed long vine.
Video about caring for grapes in summer
It is not recommended to grow anything superfluous in the vineyard: tomatoes, beans, onions and other garden plants will interfere with the growth of grapes.
For the development of the root system in deep soil layers, it is necessary to remove the surface roots on the underground part of the trunk. If you do not pay attention to this procedure in the early years, the upper roots will die when the soil freezes, and in the summer the plants will suffer from a lack of moisture. The roots are removed at the end of June and in August, in the morning: a hole is made around the grape shoot 20 cm deep and the upper roots are cut off with a pruner or a sharp knife close to the trunk. After the first pruning, the hole is buried until the green growth of the shoot, and after the second pruning, a hole about 10 cm deep is left.
Watered young grapes once a week at the rate of 10 liters per bush. At the same time, fertilizers (superphosphate, ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate) can be added to the water. Remember to regularly destroy the weeds around the young plantings and loosen the soil, destroying the dense top layer that forms after rain and watering.
Young grapes are watered once a week at the rate of 10 liters per bush
As experienced growers rightly point out, if the grapes are not cut off, good bunches cannot be expected. Pruning grapes allows you to create the most favorable conditions for the development of plants and ripening of fruits, providing shoots with sunlight and fresh air.
Pruning and breaking of grape shoots, thinning foliage, pinching and other procedures necessary for the correct formation and increase in the yield of grapes are called "green operations" by winegrowers. Let's take a closer look at the main "green operations" that should be carried out during the season.
"Dry garter" is the first procedure with which the summer care of the vineyard begins. Last year's vines are tied to a trellis, giving them the direction to grow. In the southern regions, the garter can be carried out at the end of April, until fresh shoots have grown, in most Russian regions this should be done in the first ten days of June, when the probability of frost disappears.
Pruning grapes allows you to create the most favorable conditions for plant development and fruit ripening
Fragment of shoots - during the budding period, sterile branches at the base of the bushes, as well as excess shoots growing from one eye, are removed. After tying the vines, all weak and lagging branches break off. Then comes the "green garter" - it is carried out several times during the season, when the shoots outgrow the next wire on the trellis by 20 centimeters.
Pinching - at the end of June, fruit shoots are shortened on fruiting vines so that more nutrients can be supplied to the bunches. To do this, the tops of the sprouts are cut off after the antennae, leaving five leaves after the second bunch. Also, pinch the top of the vine when it reaches a length of 2.5 m, otherwise the vine can stretch up to 6 m, as a result of which the bunches will ripen more slowly, and less sugar will accumulate in the berries. Young shoots growing from the replacement knot do not need to be pinched.
Normalization of inflorescences - for grape varieties with small sleeves, 1st order inflorescences are removed, for all other varieties, 3rd and 4th order inflorescences should be removed. Berries from this grow larger and sweeter, crack less often and rot less.
Normalization of inflorescences - in grape varieties with small sleeves, 1st order inflorescences are removed, in all other varieties, 3rd and 4th order inflorescences should be removed
Pickling - greens, which are not necessary when ripening grapes, should be reduced. Therefore, from June to August, all stepchildren that arise in the axils of the leaves pluck out and at the same time cut out all the whiskers so that the plant directs its forces towards the future harvest.
Shoot embossing - in the first half of August, the tops of the shoots are cut to the first normal leaf (after about the 15th leaf). Thanks to the minting, the growth of the branches will slow down and the bunches will ripen better.
Thinning the leaves - three weeks before harvest, it is recommended to break off the old leaves that grow in the lower part of the bush, as well as those that shade the bunches of berries. This procedure will provide better ventilation of the vines, while the bunches will receive more sunlight.
After minting shoots, stepchildren begin to actively appear on the grape bushes.
Harvest rationing - since the climate in most of the Russian regions does not allow grapes to fully ripen, domestic winegrowers deliberately donate part of the harvest. On each shoot, one or two bunches are left (preferably the lowest, the most powerful ones) and small underdeveloped grapes are cut into them. This procedure is carried out in August, while the berries are still very small.
Keep in mind that after the chasing of the shoots, stepchildren begin to actively appear on the vines. Manage to pluck them in time. All of these "green operations" are necessary only for mature grape bushes. Up to three years, grapes can grow freely, summer care for them consists in regular watering with additional fertilizing and in loosening the earth with the destruction of weeds.
Grapes need to be fed with fertilizers - this is clear even for novice gardeners. But when buying complex mineral fertilizers, you should pay attention to the fact that all the components in them are water-soluble, otherwise the grape roots will not be able to absorb the fertilizing. It is especially important to apply fertilizers during the budding period and during the ripening of the bunches. So, spraying grapes in August with a solution of potassium monophosphate or an infusion of wood ash will provide a better ripening of the vine and the accumulation of sugars in the berries.
Video about summer grape care
During the summer, take time every day to inspect the vines for pests and dangerous fungal diseases. In healthy grape leaves, the underside is smooth, greenish, without bloom. If you notice yellow spots, characteristic of mildew, or ash bloom (a sign of powdery mildew), immediately treat the entire vineyard with special preparations. Before flowering, you can spray the grapes with various means:
Do not remove all sterile shoots: they form the necessary supply of nutrients that will be needed for the development of the bush. On average, it is enough for 2-3 fruiting branches to leave one sterile one.
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The first, after planting seedlings in the ground, a contribution to the future harvest is the formation of a grape bush, which begins from the first year of the plant's life and, together with the shape of the plant's crown, determines its fruiting.
With a competent approach, by the fourth year the bush takes on its final appearance, but this does not mean that the work of the grower is completed.
In August, most varieties begin their ripening period. The root system of plants begins to actively produce sugar and send it to the berries, therefore providing the shrub with nutrients enriches the taste of the fruit.
When ripe, grapes are not watered abundantly in August. If the plant dries up and the climate is dry, moderate watering is done along with nutrients: phosphorus and potassium.
Wood (ash) contains potassium and a little phosphorus, therefore it can replace them as a fertilizer that is well absorbed. Thanks to him, the berries become denser and stop cracking.
Pruning grapes in August takes place in several stages:
In the third month of summer, young vines begin to stiffen. The shoots develop less actively, and the green shell of the shoots becomes brown. During this period, the lower part of the bush is actively developing.
At this stage, chasing is carried out - pruning of 8 grape leaves at the tops, which create the density of the shrub. Such work is carried out at 15-30 cm, depending on how vigorous the plant is.
Minting is done with a special pruner. No more than 16 leaves are left on one shoot so that the bunches are well nourished. If the summer period is dry, minting is not necessary. Fragment of all dry parts is made immediately, especially if there are signs of fungus or other diseases.
Young grape cuttings are planted in August so that the bush has time to take root before the first frost. If the planting material is a vine with a well developed root, it is planted in early September. Planting dates depend on climatic conditions.
Residents of the Northern regions plant planting material no later than August, and the Middle Lane - no later than October.
Tips from experienced winegrowers will help novice gardeners avoid mistakes when growing grape bushes:
Summer grape care is an integral part of preparing for the next harvest. And one of the most important parts of the summer processing of this berry, most varieties of which ripen in Belarus in autumn, is getting rid of unnecessary branches, pinching stepsons and banding. Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, expert www.interfax.by Vladimir Tereshchuk is sure: since this crop is characterized by rapid growth, if it is not controlled, actively growing vines will suck vitality from the roots.
"We need a harvest - juicy, sweet bunches of grapes, so we need to remove unnecessary branches in a timely manner so that all nutrients rush to the fruits, and not to the shoots," he notes.
Summer grape pruning is the basis of the future harvest
The main cleaning of the rows is carried out in the fall, but the summer pruning of grapes is no less important - it corrects the growth of the vines, balances the balance between fruitful and empty shoots. The harvesting process will also be more comfortable - you do not have to wade through the thickets for bunches. This process also increases the endurance of the bush, helping it survive the growing season.
If we properly care for young grape bushes in the first years of their life, then we create the basis for future abundant fruiting. A frivolous attitude to pruning, for example, to summer (correction), will have a bad effect on the development of the bush, the quality, and taste of the berries. In other words, instead of abundance of grapes, you will get a chaotically overgrown shrub, which, at best, can provide you with shade during the heat.
Multiple fruit arrows at the bush work on the number of bunches, but the quality (taste, size) suffers. Also, empty shoots, covered with leaves, but without fruit, thicken the bush - these factors reduce productivity. This is why the most important rule for growing grapes is to maintain a balance - an acceptable ratio between the vines.
Exists belief: A monument to a donkey was erected in Italy. Visiting tourists are interested in what such services are. It turns out that once such a story happened. One Italian family, as usual, sat in the evening at a meal under an overgrown grape bush. A hungry donkey came up and devoured half of the young shoots from this bush. And what the witnesses of this event noticed, that where the donkey ate the vineyard, the fruits grew twice as large. This advised the Italians to carry out regular pruning of vineyards in the summer and get higher yields of this crop. This is how they immortalized the heroic deed of the donkey and erected a monument to him. Don't believe me? Check it out.
Green pruning of grapes
It is noteworthy that for this business, growers often do not use garden tools. The specificity of the procedure provides for the manual removal of young processes. In fact, this event is of a correctional nature, it lasts from June to August, that is, almost all summer. If you decide to start growing grapes, be prepared for constant control over the bushes, regularly pinching off stepchildren, breaking out excess shoots.
Young shoots begin to be removed from June, while the fruiting vines are tied to supporting supports - this is done to evenly distribute the weight between empty and fruit branches. At this time stage, the formation of replacement knots is formed, from which new fruitful vines will grow next summer. Pruning grapes in the summer after flowering is the removal of stepchildren - this happens in July. At the same time, the bushes are treated with protective agents against pests, fertilizers are applied. Top dressing provides an improvement in the palatability of the fruit, and pruning lays the foundation for yield for the current and next year.
In the last month of summer, young branches are minted, a process somewhat reminiscent of pinching. Thus, the upper part of the shoot is cut off, but the difference is that when chasing, a much larger part of the branch is removed than when pinching. There should be about 14 leaves on the shoot. Also, the minting procedure is carried out much later in time, when the activity of branch growth begins to gradually decrease. When minting, shoots of fruit arrows, shoots of replacement knots, branches growing from perennial lignified vines are corrected.
The growth of branches after minting stops, all the vital forces of the plant are concentrated in the clusters of grapes and internodes, which are located below the cut.Such pruning of grapes has a positive effect on all parts of the bush, the fruits ripen better, better access of sunlight to the branches, bunches is provided. In addition, in August, to stimulate the activity of the lower part of the root system, some experienced growers recommend cutting off some of the upper roots.
Thus, green pruning is carried out constantly: before the flowering of the brushes, after their flowering, during the tying of the bunches. As for the antennae, the procedure for their removal can be carried out every day. They play the role of a kind of hooks, since in their structure the grapes resemble a liana. If you tie the branches of the bushes to the supports, then the antennae can be plucked off completely.
The pinching is done before the onset of the flowering period, in other words, the upper segment of the young branch is removed with the help of fingers. The part of the shoot remaining after plucking is usually about 10 cm (to the border of the beginning of the lignified vine). The method is of the same nature as the chasing, which was mentioned above, only the forces of the plant are activated in the future inflorescences. This process has a positive effect on the quality and quantity of future bunches. It should be repeated every 12-14 days.
After the end of the flowering period, around July, green pruning of grapes is carried out - removal of stepsons. They are shoots that grow from the place between the leaf and the stem of the branch. If you miss the moment, then these processes will quickly grow, the bush will become thick, access to the sun's rays to the fruits will be difficult. In addition, the grapes can get sick, and the berries will lose their sweetness and become sour. It is not necessary to completely (to the very base) remove the stepson, since in a couple of days a new process will appear in its place. It will be better if you pinch off part of the stepson, while leaving 2 cm in length. Stepchildren should be audited weekly.
Clarification of the bush is the pruning of grapes aimed at thinning the crown. At the same time, the necessary ventilation is achieved, better access to the rays of the sun, this procedure is carried out during the ripening of the bunches. An important point - always remove pruned branches, do not leave them on the ground under the grapes. In this foliage, pests and bacteria can start, which will subsequently successfully move to the bush, infect it.
Do not be afraid to thin out bushes that are too thick, even if there are brushes on the branches to be removed. Let you lose a little in the amount of the crop, but its quality will undoubtedly win. If the branch is strong, then three or four bunches of grapes can be located on it, on weak vines it is recommended to leave one brush.
Recommended general rules for summer grape pruning:
Caring for grapes, pruning in summer differs from autumn procedures, since it does not affect the lignified fragments of the bush, but is limited only to green branches, leaves, brush ovaries.
Still, it is worth mentioning another technique that allows you to improve the quality of the crop, to reduce the ripening time of fruits. We are talking about ringing - a procedure that is quite traumatic for a bush. It is allowed to be held once every two to three years. Ringing is the removal of bark rings from fruit branches. The thickness of the layer to be removed should be no more than 3 mm. Thus, the nutritious juices of the plant are directed to the bunches, as well as to those parts of the vines that are located above the "operated" fragment.
In the early years, the young vineyard is weeded, loosened and fed. Watering - only when necessary if the summer is dry. No pruning should be done in the year of planting.
In subsequent years, it will be necessary to break off, pinch, pinch the shoots and thin out the leaves. These techniques (both common to many berry crops and "specifically viticultural") are needed so that the main fruiting shoots receive good nutrition, and the bush develops correctly and gives a crop.
Breaking off is the removal of weak and coarse shoots on a bush. It is done after the appearance of inflorescences and antennae, but before the shoot becomes stiff at the base. Breaking off begins from the bottom, then goes to the sleeves (lignified shoots) and knots. Some of the strong shoots are left for the subsequent renewal of the bush.
Pinching - removing the top of the green shoot. This prevents the plant from stretching in length, the flow of nutrients is redirected to the inflorescences. Pinching is done 2-3 days before flowering.
The growing bush will inevitably be thickened with shoots of the second and third order - stepchildren, which may cause a decrease in the yield. Therefore, their growth must be limited. But it is not necessary to remove them radically - at the stage of bush formation, they are important for the proper metabolism and nutrition of plant parts. Young, not having time to become lignified, stepchildren are removed completely. Lignified and leafy stepchildren are pruned from above, leaving no more than four leaves on each.
2-3 weeks before the harvest ripens, the leaves that block the bunches from the sun must be pinched off - then the berries will pour faster, their sugar content will increase. However, it is necessary to remove no more than five leaves from each bunch so that the feeding process is not disrupted.
Pruning is done every fall after the foliage has fallen. Without pruning, the grapes grow very much, and the berries become smaller.
Top dressing of the vines is best done in the fall, for digging. The most effective way is to apply top dressing in a small trench 60–70 cm deep, dug along and at a distance of at least 1 m from the planting - so that food flows directly into the zone of occurrence of the main roots. For 1 sq. m of the area occupied by the vine requires 6–8 kg of rotted manure (nitrogen part) and 80–100 g of sifted ash (potassium-phosphorus part).
In late autumn, the pruned vine is laid on the ground so as to protect it from accidental damage (away from the paths, along the walls). When frosts come and the ground freezes over, the vine is covered with lutrasil and insulated with spruce branches. The shelter is fixed so as not to be blown away by the wind. Unpretentious varieties (‘Zilga’, ‘Saperavi North’, ‘Platovsky’, ‘Crystal’, ‘Alpha’) do not need to be covered. They can spend the winter bent to the ground under a snow coat.
In April, after the snow melts, the shelter from the vine is not removed immediately - the bright spring sun can burn it. It is necessary to wait for the arrival of stable above-zero air temperatures, and open the vine in cloudy weather or in the evening.
To prevent possible infection with fungal diseases after wintering, the vine can be treated with "Hom" or "Oxyhom" preparations. This measure is not mandatory, since in the Central Russian climate the grapes are almost not sick with anything, it is enough to make sure that there are no signs of infection.
If, before flowering or during the flowering of grapes, there is a threat of spring frosts, which is not uncommon for the middle zone, then the bushes must be covered with lutrasil in advance.
Summer treatments do not overload the plant, so follow-up care will be normal. Main activities:
In order to protect against diseases and pests, grapes are treated with any fungicidal preparation.
After pruning, the vineyard does not require much maintenance
If you plan to take a garden tool for pruning, then it is better to use a pruner. In exceptional cases, a special fine-toothed hacksaw is required. The pruner should have sharpened blades, and before use, they are disinfected with any alcohol-containing solution. The cut is made from the inside of the shoot. If it comes out unevenly, then correct it. Now you know how to properly prune grapes in the summer from unnecessary shoots.